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APA Style - Citing Sources: Citations

In-Text Citations

  • As you write your paper, you must cite your sources within the text of your paper.  These are called in-text or parenthetical citations.  APA format follows the author-date method of in-text citation. This means that the author’s last name and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text, for example, (Smith, 2019), and the reference should appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.  If you are quoting verbatim you must include the page numbers in your in-text citation, such as (Smith, 2019, pp. 25-27).  If you are paraphrasing, include the author and date, with no page numbers.  All sources that are cited in the text must appear in the reference list at the end of the paper (with the exception of a source that is personal communication).
  • The links below will help you format this correctly.  Use the link you find most helpful since they both have similar information. 
  • See the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.), Ch. 6, "Crediting Sources," starting on p. 169, for more information.

Basic Citation Styles

Type of citation

First citation in text

Subsequent citations in text

Parenthetical format, first citation in text

Parenthetical format, subsequent citations in text

One work by one author

Walker (2007)

Walker (2007)

(Walker, 2007)

(Walker, 2007)

One work by two authors

Walker and Allen (2004)

Walker and Allen (2004)

(Walker & Allen, 2004)

(Walker & Allen, 2004)

One work by three authors

Bradley, Ramirez, and Soo (1999)

Bradley et al. (1999)

(Bradley, Ramirez, & Soo, 1999)

(Bradley et al., 1999)

One work by four authors

Bradley, Ramirez, Soo, and Walsh (2006)

Bradley et al. (2006)

(Bradley, Ramirez, Soo, & Walsh, 2006)

(Bradley et al., 2006)

One work by five authors

Walker, Allen, Bradley, Ramirez, and Soo (2008)

Walker et al. (2008)

(Walker, Allen, Bradley, Ramirez, & Soo, 2008)

(Walker et al., 2008)

One work by six or more authors

Wasserstein et al. (2005)

Wasserstein et al. (2005)

(Wasserstein et al., 2005)

(Wasserstein et al., 2005)

Groups (readily identifiable through abbreviation) as authors

National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH, 2003)

NIMH (2003)

(National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 2003)

(NIMH, 2003)

Groups (no abbreviation) as authors

University of Pittsburgh (2005)

University of Pittsburgh (2005)

(University of Pittsburgh, 2005)

(University of Pittsburgh, 2005)

 

 

 

Source: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (6th ed). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2010. (Table 6.1, p. 177)