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Chicago Manual of Style - How to Cite Your Sources


As you write your paper, your Professor may ask you to use the Author-Date System of CMS. This means you must cite your sources within the text of your paper.  These are called in-text or parenthetical citations. The natural and social sciences use this system most often, but again clarify with your professor if you are unsure which they would prefer.

Author-Date Sample Paper - OWL Purdue Online Writing Lab

For more Examples or for more obscure or confusing citations refer to the seventeenth edition of The Chicago Manual of Style.

Text Citations

The Text Citations include two pieces of information, Last Name of Creator and Year Published. 

The general citation for citing an entire source should look as such: 

(Last Name Year)

For citing specific pages:

(Last Name Year, Page Numbers)

For more than one author:

(Last Name, Last Name, and Last Name Year)

(Last Name et al Year)

For Multiple Same Last Names:

(First Initial. Last Name Year)


Author Date References Cheatsheet

Reference List

A reference list must always accompany the text citations. The reference list is included at the end of the paper and includes the full citation for each source.

Style Guidelines

  • Title of Page should be centered and plain text, not bold, italicized, or in quotation marks
  • As with the rest of the paper the margins should be no less that .5 inches and no more than 1 inch on all sides
  • Individual citations should be single spaced and each single spaced citation should be double spaced between the next entry.
  • Font style and size should be consistent with the rest of the paper

Reference List - Basic Citations

Book (1 author)

Last, First M. Book. City: Publisher, Year Published.


Last, First M. “Section Title.” In Book/Anthology, edited by First M. Last, Page(s). Edition ed. City: Publisher, Year Published.


Last, First M., and First M. Last. “Article Title.” Journal Title, Series, Volume, no. Issue (Month Date, Year Published): Page(s).


Last, First M. “Article Title.” Magazine Title, Month Date, Year Published.


Last, First M. “Article Title.” Newspaper Title (City), Month Date, Year Published

TV & Film

Lastname, Firstname. Title of Work. Format. Directed/Performed by Firstname Lastname. Original Release Year. City: Studio/Distributor, Video release year. Medium.

Web Sources

Lastname, Firstname. “Title of Web Page.” Publishing Organization or Name of Website in Italics. Publication date and/or access date if available. URL.