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Chicago Manual of Style - How to Cite Your Sources

Notes and Bibliography

The Notes and Bibliography system is most often used with CMS. It is traditionally used for the arts and history. Again, consulting with your professor is a must to ensure you are using the correct system for their class. The Notes system does not use in-text citations. Instead, footnotes or endnotes (Check With Your Professor!) are used in conjunction with a final bibliography at the end of the paper.

Notes-Bibliography Sample Paper - OWL Purdue Online Writing Lab

Examples of Notes and Bibliography - OWL Purdue Online Writing Lab

For more Examples or for more obscure or confusing citations refer to the seventeenth edition of The Chicago Manual of Style.


Notes & Bibliography Cheatsheet

Footnote or Endnote - Style Guidelines

  • While the bibliography uses hanging indents the notes do not. Instead the first line is indented only.

Quick Note: CMS very recently published the 17th edition, which made some changes to the guidelines. "Ibid" used to be used to denote that the following note citation came from the same source as the previously fully cited note citation. "Ibid" is no longer considered correct to use. That being said, check with your professor as to how they would like the notes cited. They may not be aware of these changes or may prefer that you keep up with the 16th edition's guidelines.

A list of changes between the editions can be found HERE

Footnote or Endnote - Basic Citations


1. Firstname Lastname, Title of Book (Place of  publication: Publisher, Year of publication), page number.


 1. Firstname Lastname, “Title of Article,” Title of Journal Volume, Issue # (Year of Publication): Page(s).

Web Sources

1. Firstname Lastname, “Title of Web Page,” Publishing Organization or Name of Website in Italics, publication date and/or access date if available, URL.

TV & Film

1. Firstname Lastname, Title of Work, Format, directed/performed by Firstname Lastname (Original release year; City: Studio/Distributor, Video release year.), Medium.

Public Documents

 1. Firstname Lastname, “Title of Unpublished Material” (source type identifier, Place of Publication, year of publication), page number(s).


Bibliography - Style Guidelines

NOTE: The bibliographic citation is different from the note citation. Be aware of these differences and don't just copy & paste from one section to the next.

  • The title of the book or journal is italicized, not the title of a chapter or journal article.
  • The lines for each citation after the first line need to be indented – these are called “hanging indents.” 

Bibliography - Basic Citations

Book (1 author)

Last, First M. Book. City: Publisher, Year Published.


Last, First M. “Section Title.” In Book/Anthology, edited by First M. Last, Page(s). Edition ed. City: Publisher, Year Published.


Last, First M., and First M. Last. “Article Title.” Journal Title, Series, Volume, no. Issue (Month Date, Year Published): Page(s).


Last, First M. “Article Title.” Magazine Title, Month Date, Year Published.


Last, First M. “Article Title.” Newspaper Title (City), Month Date, Year Published.

TV & Film

Lastname, Firstname. Title of Work. Format. Directed/Performed by Firstname Lastname. Original Release Year. City: Studio/Distributor, Video release year. Medium.

Web Sources

Lastname, Firstname. “Title of Web Page.” Publishing Organization or Name of Website in Italics. Publication date and/or access date if available. URL.

Public Documents

Lastname, Firstname. Title of Unpublished Material.” Source type identifier, Place of Publication, year of publication.

Creating a Hanging Indent

CMS requires you to use a hanging indent for your sources. These are instructions for creating a hanging indent in Word documents.

  1. Place your cursor at the beginning of your second line, before any text.
  2. Right click your mouse.
  3. Select Paragraph from the resulting pop up menu.
  4. Under Indentation, use the Special pull-down menu to select Hanging.

Right click your mouse to open the Paragraph tab, or choose it from the ribbon bar.

Under "Special," select "Hanging."

Citations Created by Databases

Many databases, such as EBSCO, provide a tool to format a citation for a bibliography or a footnote.  While handy, these citations should be considered a "jumping off point."  They are sometimes incorrect, and you must verify the proper format.  Pay particular attention to capitalization, punctuation, and italicization.