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Chicago Manual of Style - How to Cite Your Sources

What's the Difference?

Turabian's Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations is designed to better fit the needs of students using Chicago Manual of Style. It is a bit shorter and has some other differences, such as:

  • Turabian requires Date Accessed information for some citations
  • Turabian has specific margin rules. (1 inch margins on all sides)
  • Turabian has specific Title Page guidelines. (Sample Title Page Here)

Be sure to, as always, check with your professor and see if they would like the paper in Turabian or Chicago style.

A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations by Kate L. Turabian

Turabian Style Guidelines

  • It is important to note that not all sources need to be cited within the bibliography. Some only need to be cited in the notes. Pay attention to which sources need to be cited and where they should be properly cited.
  • Notes must use consecutive superscript numbers and the entire note must be indented. They must be in the same font as the rest of the paper and be in the same size font or one to two font sizes smaller. Notes should be single spaced.
  • The first note should be the full note citation, but subsequent notes, as long as they fall directly after the original note citation, may use a shortened citation style that looks as follows: Last Name, Title, Page Numbers. Be sure to check with the resources available as the subsequent shortened citation style may change according to the source type.
  • Bibliographic citations should have hanging indents, be in the same font as the rest of the paper and in the same size font. Citations should be single spaced with a double space between each citation.

Turabian - Basic Citations



First M. Last. Book. (City: Publisher, Year Published), Pages


Last, First M. Book. City: Publisher, Year Published.



First M. Last. "Article Title," Newspaper, Month Date, Year Published.


Last, First M. “Article Title.” Newspaper Title (City), Month Date, Year Published.



First M. Last. "Article Title," Journal Volume, Issue (Month, Year Published): Pages, Stable URL (accessed date).


Last, First M., and First M. Last. “Article Title.” Journal Title, Series, Volume, no. Issue (Month Date, Year Published): Page(s).



Last, First M. “Article Title.” Website Title. Month Date, Year Published. Accessed Month Date, Year. URL.

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